Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - LARKUM LAB




Mental navigation and the neural mechanisms of insight

Aru J, Drüke M, Pikamäe J, Larkum ME (2022) Trends Neurosci. S0166-2236(22)00232-6.


Efficient training approaches for optimizing behavioral performance and reducing head fixation time

Nasr A, Dominiak SE, Sehara K, Nashaat MA, Sachdev RNS, Larkum ME (2022) PLoS One 17:e0276531.


Post-encoding modulation of spatial memory consolidation by propofol

Iggena D, Maier PM, Häußler SM, Menk M, Olze H, Larkum ME, Finke C, Ploner CJ (2022) Cortex. 2022 156:1-12.


Does brain activity cause consciousness? A thought experiment

Gidon A, Aru J, Larkum ME (2022) PLoS Biology 20:e3001651.


Coordination between eye movement and whisking in head fixed mice navigating a plus-maze

Bergmann R, Sehara K, Dominiak SE, Kremkow J, Larkum ME, Sachdev RNS (2022) ENEURO.0089-22.2022.


Presynaptic supervision of cortical spine dynamics in motor learning

Sohn J, Suzuki M, Youssef M, Hatada S, Larkum ME, Kawaguchi Y, Kubota Y (2022) NSci Adv. 2022 Jul 29;8(30):eabm0531.


Are dendrites conceptually useful?

Larkum ME (2022) Neuroscience 489, 4-14.


The guide to dendritic spikes of the mammalian cortex in vitro and in vivo

Larkum ME, Wu J, Duverdin SA, Gidon A (2022) Neuroscience 489, 15-33.




Deep tissue scattering compensation with three-photon F-SHARP

Berlage C, Tantirigama MLS, Babot M, Di Battista D, Whitmire C, Papadopoulos IN, Poulet JFA, Larkum M, Judkewitz B (2021) Optica 8, 1613-1619.


Double-µPeriscope: a tool for multi-layer optical recordings, optogenetic stimulations or both
Suzuki M, Aru J, Larkum ME (2021) eLIFE, 10:e72894.


Memories off the top of your head
Shin JN, Doron G, Larkum ME (2021) Science, 374, 538–539.


GABAB receptor-mediated regulation of dendro-somatic synergy in layer 5 pyramidal neurons
Schulz JM, Kay JW, Bischofsberger J, Larkum ME (2021) Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 15


Thalamic input to motor cortex facilitates goal-directed action initiation
Takahashi N, Moberg S, Zolnik TA, Catanese J, Sachdev RNS, Larkum ME, Jaeger D (2021) Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 31, 4148-4155.


Real-time closed-loop feedback in behavioral time scales using DeepLabCut
Sehara K, Zimmer-Harwood P, Larkum ME, Sachdev RNS  (2021) eNeuro, 8, 1-10.




Perirhinal input to neocortical layer 1 controls learning
Doron G, Shin JN, Takahashi N, Drüke M, Bocklisch C, Skenderi S, de Mont L, Toumazou M, Ledderose J, Brecht M, Naud R, Larkum ME  (2020) Science, 370, 1435-1444.


Cellular mechanisms of conscious processing
Aru J, Suzuki M, Larkum ME (2020) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24, 814-825.


Active dendritic currents gate descending cortical outputs in perception
Takahashi N, Ebner C, Sigl-Glöckner J, Moberg S, Nierwetberg S, Larkum ME (2020) Nature Neuroscience, 23, 1277-1285.


Dynamic conjugate F-SHARP microscopy
Papadopoulos IN, Jouhanneau JS, Takahashi N, Kaplan D, Larkum M, Poulet J, Judkewitz B (2020) Light Sci Appl, 9, 110. https://doi: 10.1038/s41377-020-00348-x


Perspective on the multiple pathways to changing brain states
Tantirigama MLS, Zolnik TA, Judkewitz BJ, Larkum ME, Sachdev RNS (2020) Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 14, 23.

Up and Down States and Memory Consolidation across Somatosensory, Entorhinal, and Hippocampal Cortices
Tukker J, Beed P, Schmitz D, Larkum ME, Sachdev RNS (2020) Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 14, 22.


Layer 6b is driven by intracortical long-range projection neurons
Zolnik TA, Ledderose J, Toumazou M, Trimbuch T, Oram T, Rosenmund C, Eickholt BJ, Sachdev RNS, Larkum ME (2020) Cell Reports 30, 3492-3506. DOI:


General Anesthesia Decouples Cortical Pyramidal Neurons
Suzuki M, Larkum ME (2020) Cell 180, 666-676. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.01.024


Dendritic action potentials and computation in human layer 2/3 cortical neurons
Gidon A, Zolnik TA, Fidzinski P, Bolduan F, Papoutsi A, Poirazi P, Holtkamp M, Vida I, Larkum ME (2020) Science 367 (6473), 83-87.




Coupling the State and Contents of Consciousness
Jaan Aru, Mototaka Suzuki, Renate Rutiku, Matthew E. Larkum, Talis Bachmann Front. Syst. Neurosci., 30 August 2019 |

Effects  of Sexual Experience and Puberty on Mouse Genital Cortex revealed by Chronic Imaging
Sigl-Glöckner J, Maier E, Takahashi N, Sachdev R, Larkum M, Brecht M. (2019) Curr Biol. 29:3588-3599.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.08.062.


A Fear Memory Engram and Its Plasticity in the Hypothalamic Oxytocin System Hasan
MT, Althammer F, Silva da Gouveia M, Goyon S, Eliava M, Lefevre A, Kerspern D, Schimmer J, Raftogianni A, Wahis J, Knobloch-Bollmann HS, Tang Y, Liu X, Jain A, Chavant V, Goumon Y, Weislogel JM, Hurlemann R, Herpertz SC, Pitzer C, Darbon P, Dogbevia GK, Bertocchi I, Larkum ME, Sprengel R, Bading H, Charlet A, Grinevich V. Neuron. 103:133-146.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.04.029


Optically Induced Calcium-Dependent Gene Activation and Labeling of Active Neurons Using CaMPARI and Cal-Light
Ebner C, Ledderose J, Zolnik TA, Dominiak SE, Turko P, Papoutsi A, Poirazi P, Eickhot BJ, Vida I, Larkum ME, Sachdev RNS. Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience 11: doi: 10.3389/fnsyn.2019.00016 


Individual differences in the effects of priors on perception: a multi-paradigm approach
Tulver, K., Aru, J., Rutiku, R., & Bachmann, T. Cognition, 187: 167-177.


Waving goodbye to contrast: Self-generated hand movements attenuate visual sensitivity
Vasser, M., Vuillaume, L., Cleeremans, A., & Aru, J. Neuroscience of consciousness. niy013


Whisking signals motor preparation and the behavioral state of mice
Sina E. Dominiak*, Mostafa A. Nashaat*, Keisuke Sehara, Hatem Oraby, Matthew E. Larkum and Robert N.S. Sachdev. Journal of Neuroscience 30 October 2019, 1809-19; DOI: 




Improved methods for marking active neuron populations
Moeyaert B, Holt G, Madangopal R, Perez-Alvarez A, Fearey BC, Trojanowski NF, Ledderose J, Zolnik TA, Das A, Patel D, Brown TA, Sachdev RNS, Eickholt BJ, Larkum ME, Turrigiano GG, Dana H, Gee CE, Oertner TG, Hope BT, Schreiter ER. Nature Communications 9: 1-12. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06935-2


It’s all in your head: Expectations create illusory perception in a dual-task setup
Aru, J., Tulver, K., & Bachmann, T. Consciousness and cognition, 65, 197-208


Activations of Deep Convolutional Neural Network are Aligned with Gamma Band Activity of Human Visual Cortex
Kuzovkin I, Vicente R, Petton M, Lachaux JP, Baciu M, Kahane P, Rheims S, Vidal JR, Aru J. Communications Biology, 1: 107.


A Perspective on Cortical Layering and Layer-Spanning Neuronal Elements
Larkum M.E., Petro, L.S., Sachdev, R.N.S. and Muckli, L. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2018.00056 




Building bridges through science
Lissek, T. et al. Neuron 96: 730-735. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.09.028


Deep Learning: Branching into brains
Shai, A., Larkum, M.E. eLife 2017;6:e33066 doi: 10.7554/eLife.33066


Cortical dendritic activity correlates with spindle-rich oscillations during sleep in rodents
Seibt, J., Richard, C.J., Sigl-Glöckner, J., Takahashi, N., Kaplan, D., Doron, G., de Limoges, D., Bocklisch, C., Larkum, M.E. Nature Communications volume 8, 684  


Dendritic calcium spikes are clearly detectable at the cortical surface
Suzuki, M., Larkum, M.E.  Nature Communications 8, 276. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00282-4


All-optical functional synaptic connectivity mapping in acute brain slices using the calcium integrator CaMPARI
Zolnik TA, Sha F, Johenning FW, Schreiter ER, Looger LL, Larkum ME, Sachdev RN. J Physiol. 595(5):1465-1477. doi: 10.1113/JP273116. 


A reward-based behavioral platform to measure neuronal activity during head-fixed behavior
Micaller, A.F., Takahashi, N., Larkum, M.E., Palmer, L.M. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2017.00156


Pixying Behavior: A Versatile Real-Time and Post Hoc Automated Optical Tracking Method for Freely Moving and Head Fixed Animals
Mostafa A. Nashaat, Hatem Oraby, Laura Blanco Peña, Sina Dominiak, Matthew E. Larkum and Robert N. S. Sachdev. eNeuro, doi:




Active Cortical Dendrites Modulate Perception
Naoya Takahashi, Thomas G. Oertner, Peter Hegemann, Matthew E. Larkum. Science 3541587-1590. doi: 10.1126/science.aah6066


Vibrissa motor cortex activity suppresses contralateral whisker movement 
Ebbesen C.L., Doron G., Lenschow C., Brecht M. Nat. Neurosci. 2016 Oct 31. doi: 10.1038/nn.4437


Noisy juxtacellular stimulation in vivo leads to reliable spiking and reveals high-frequency coding in single neurons
Jens Doose, Guy Doron, Michael Brecht and Benjamin Lindner. Journal of Neuroscience 26 October 2016, 36 (43) 11120-11132; doi:


The effects of arousal on apical amplification and conscious state
W. A. Phillips, M. E. Larkum, C. W. Harley, S. M. Silverstein. Neuroscience of Consciousness, Volume 2016, Issue 1, 2016, niw015,


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) inhibits cortical dendrites
Sean C Murphy, Lucy M Palmer, Thomas Nyffeler, René M Müri, Matthew E Larkum. (2016) eLife pii: e13598. doi: 10.7554/eLife.13598


Air-Track: A real-world floating environment for active sensing in head-fixed mice
Nashaat, M.A., Oraby, H., Sachdev, R.N.S., Winter, Y., Larkum, M.E. (2016) . J Neurophysiology 116: 1542-1553




Design and performance of an ultra-flexible two-photon microscope for in vivo research
Mayrhofer, J.M., Haiss, F., Haenni, D., Weber, S., Zuend, M., Barrett, M.J., Ferrari, K.D., Maechler, P., Saab, A.S., Stobart, J.L., Wyss, M.T., Johannssen, H., Osswald, H., Palmer, L.M., Revol, V., Schuh, C.D., Urban, C., Hall, A., Larkum, M.E., Rutz-Innerhofer, E., Zeilhofer, H.U., Ziegler, U., Weber, B. (2015)  Biomed Opt Express 6: 4228-4237


A top-down cortical circuit for accurate sensory perception
Manita, S., Suzuki, T., Homma, C., Matsumoto, T., Odagawa, M., Yamada, K., Ota, K., Matsubara, C., Inutsuka, A., Sato, M., Ohkura, M., Yamanaka, A., Yanagawa, Y., Nakai, J., Hayashi, Y., Larkum, M.E., Murayama, M. (2015) Neuron 86: 1304-1316


Physiology of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex: coincidence detection through bursting
Shai, A.S., Anastassiou, C.A., Larkum, M.E., Koch, C. (2015)  PLoS Computational Biology 11, doi: 10.1371/journal.ocbi.1004090




In vivo population imaging of dendritic integration in neocortex. In Optical Imaging of Neocortical Dynamics
Murayama, M., Larkum, M.E. (2014) Weber, B., Helmchen, F. eds. 107-116.


NMDA spikes enhance action potential generation during sensory input
Palmer, L.M., Shai, A.S., Reeve, J.E., Anderson, H.L., Paulsen, O., Larkum, M.E. (2014) Nature Neuroscience 17: 383-390.




The challenge of connecting the dots in the B.R.A.I.N.
Devor A, Bandettini PA, Boas DA, Bower JM, Buxton RB, Cohen LB, Dale AM, Einevoll GT, Fox PT, Franceschini MA, Friston KJ, Fujimoto JG, Geyer MA, Greenberg JH, Halgren E, Hämäläinen MS, Helmchen F, Hyman BT, Jasanoff A, Jernigan TL, Judd LL, Kim SG, Kleinfeld D, Kopell NJ, Kutas M, Kwong KK, Larkum ME, Lo EH, Magistretti PJ, Mandeville JB, Masliah E, Mitra PP, Mobley WC, Moskowitz MA, Nimmerjahn A, Reynolds JH, Rosen BR, Salzberg BM, Schaffer CB, Silva GA, So PT, Spitzer NC, Tootell RB, Van Essen DC, Vanduffel W, Vinogradov SA, Wald LL, Wang LV, Weber B, Yodh AG. (2013) Neuron 80: 270-274.


Layer-specific regulation of cortical neurons by interhemispheric inhibition
Palmer, L.M., Schulz, J.M., Larkum, M.E. (2013) Commun Integr Biol 6: e23545.


Game changing results: Brain uses the cortex for making sensory associations, not the hippocampus
Max Planck Institute for Medical Research Press Release


Role of motor cortex NMDA receptors in learning-dependent synaptic plasticity of behaving mice
Mazahir T. Hasan, Samuel Hernández-González, Godwin Dogbevia, Mario Treviño, Ilaria Bertocchi, Agnès Gruart & José M. Delgado-García (2013) Nature Comunications 4: 2258


Modulation of distal calcium electrogenesis by neuropeptide Y1 receptors inhibits neocortical long-term depression
Hamilton, T., Xapelli, S., Michaelson, S., Larkum, M., Colmers, W. (2013)
Journal of Neuroscience 33(27) 11185-11193.


A cellular mechanism for cortical associations: an organizing principle for the cerebral cortex
Larkum, M. (2013) Trends in Neurosciences 36: 141-151.


The yin and yang of cortical layer 1
Larkum, M.E. (2013) Nature Neuroscience 16: 114-115.


Active properties of neocortical pyramidal neuron dendrites
Major, G., Larkum, M.E.*, Schiller, J.* (2013) Annual Reviews Neuroscience. 36: 1-24. * Equal contribution


Inhibition of dendritic Ca2+ spikes by GABAB receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons is mediated by a direct Gi/o-bg subunit interaction with Cav1 channels
Pérez-Garci, E., Larkum, M.E., Nevian, T. (2013) J. Physiol. 591: 1599-1612.




The cellular basis of GABAB-mediated interhemispheric inhibition
Palmer, L.M., Schulz, J.M., Murphy, S.C., Ledergerber, D., Murayama, M. & Larkum, M.E. (2012) Science 335: 989-993.


A compartmental model of linear resonance and signal transfer in dendrites
Schoen, A., Salehiomran, A., Larkum, M.E., Cook, E.P. (2012) eural Computation 24:3126-3144.


Inhibitory regulation of dendritic activity in vivo
Palmer, L.M., Murayama, M. & Larkum, M.E. (2012) Frontiers in Neural Circuits. doi:10.3389.


Early exposure to alcohol leads to a permanent impairment of dendritic excitability in neocortical pyramidal neurons
Granato, A., Palmer, L.M., De Giorgio, A., Tavian, D., and Larkum, M.E. (2012). J. Neurosci. 32(4): 1377-1382


Fiber-optic calcium monitoring of dendritic activity in vivo.
Murayama, M. & Larkum, M.E. (2012) Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2012: 218-225.


The time window for generation of dendritic spikes by coincidence of action potentials and EPSPs is layer specific in somatosensory cortex
Ledergerber, D. & Larkum, M.E. (2012) PLoS one 7: e33146.


Early exposure to alcohol leads to permanent impairment of dendritic excitability in neocortical pyramidal neurons
Granato, A., Palmer, L.M., De Giorgio, A., Tavian, D., Larkum, M.E. (2012) J Neurosci. 32: 1377-1282.


William N Ross, Matthew Larkum (2012). Wiley Online Library. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902. a0000092.pub3




Fiber-optic calcium monitoring of dendritic activity in vivo. In Imaging in Neuroscience: A Laboratory Manual
Murayama, M. & Larkum, M.E. (2011) Helmchen, F., Konnerth, A., eds. 897-906.




Dopamine modulates synaptic plasticity in dendrites of rat and human dentate granule cells.
Hamilton, T.J., Wheatley, B.M., Sinclair, D.B., Bachmann, M., Larkum, M.E., Colmers, W.F. (2010) PNAS 107: 18185-18190.


Properties of L6 pyramidal neuron apical dendrites.
Ledergeber, D. & Larkum, M.E. (2010) J Neurosci. 30: 13031-13044


Optical recording of neuronal activity with a genetically-encoded calcium indicator in anesthetized and freely moving mice
Lütcke, H., Murayama, M., Hahn, T., Margolis, D.J., Astori, S., Meyer zum Alten Borgloh, S., Göbel, W., Yang, Y., Tang, W., Kügler, S., Sprengel, R., Nagai, T., Miyawaki, A., Larkum, M.E., Helmchen, F., & Hasan, M.T. (2010) Frontiers in Neuroscience. 4-9.




Enhanced dendritic activity in awake rats
Murayama, M. & Larkum, M.E. (2009) PNAS, 106: 20482-20486.


Properties of piriform cortex pyramidal cell dendrites: implications for olfactory circuit design
Bathellier, B., Margrie, T.W. & Larkum, M.E. (2009) Journal of Neuoscience, 29: 12641-12652.


In vivo dendritic calcium imaging with a fiberoptic periscope system
Murayama, M. & Larkum, M.E. (2009) Nature Protocols, 4: 1551-1559.


Synaptic integration in tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a new unifying principle
Larkum, M.E.*, Nevian, T*., Sandler, M., Polsky, A., & Schiller, J. (2009) Science, 325: 756-760.* Equal contribution


Dendritic encoding of sensory stimuli controlled by deep cortical interneurons
Marayama, M., Pérez-Garci, E., Nevian, T., Bock, T., Senn, W., & Larkum, M.E. (2009) Nature, 457: 1137-1141.




Predicting the synaptic information efficacy in cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons using a minimal Integrate-and-Fire model
London, M., Larkum, M.E., & Häusser, M. (2008) Biological Cybernetics, 99: 393-401.


Synaptic clustering by dendritic signaling mechanisms
Larkum, M.E. & Nevian, T. (2008) Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 18: 1-11.


Effect of common anesthetics on dendritic calcium spike firing in layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons
Potez, S. & Larkum, M.E. (2008) Journal of Neurophysiology, 99: 1394-1407.


Dendritic properties of turtle pyramidal neurons
Larkum, M.E., Watanabe, S., Lasser-Ross, N., Rhodes, P., & Ross, W.N. (2008) Journal of Neurophysiology, 99: 683-694.




Dendritic spikes in apical dendrites of neocortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons
Larkum, M.E., Waters, J., Sakmann, B., Helmchen, F. (2007) Journal of Neuroscience, 27: 8999-9008.


Fiberoptic system for recording dendritic calcium signals in layer 5 neocortical pyramidal cells in freely moving rats
Murayama, M., Pérez-Garci, E., Lüscher, H.-R., Larkum, M.E. (2007) Journal of Neurophysiology, 98: 1791-1805.


Properties of basal dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a direct patch-clamp recording study
Nevian, T.*, Larkum, M.E.*, Polsky, A., Schiller, J. (2007) Nature Neuroscience, 10: 206-214. * Equal contribution




The GABAB1b isoform mediates long-lasting inhbition of dendritic Ca2+ spikes in layer 5 somatosensory pyramidal neurons
Pérez-Garci, E., Gassmann, M., Bettler, B., and Larkum, M.E. (2006) Neuron, 50: 603-616.




Synaptically activated Ca2+ release from internal stores in CNS neurons
Ross, W.N., Nakamura, T., Watanabe, S., Larkum, M., Lasser-Ross, N. (2005) Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 25: 283-285.




Top-down dendritic input increases the gain of layer 5 pyramidal neurons
Larkum, M.E., Senn, W, and Lüscher, H.-R. (2004). Cerebral Cortex, 10: 1059-70.


Functional fluorescent Ca2+ indicator proteins in transgenic mice under TET control
Hasan, M.T., Friedrich, R.W., Euler, T., Larkum, M.E., Giese, G., Both, M., Duebel, J., Waters, J., Bujard, H., Griesbeck, O., Tsien, R.Y., Nagai, T., Miyawaki, A., Denk, W. (2004) PLoS Biol. 2: 763-775.


Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons
Larkum, M.E., Watanabe, S., Nakamura, T., Lasser-Ross, N., and Ross, W.N. (2003). Journal of Physiology 549: 471-488.




Coincidence detection in pyramidal neurons is tuned by their dendritic branching pattern
Schaefer, A.T., Larkum, M.E., Sakmann, B. & Roth, A. (2003) Journal of Neurophysiology 89: 3143-3154.


Supralinear Ca2+ influx into dendritic tufts of layer 2/3 neocortical pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo
Waters, J., Larkum, M.E., Sakmann, B. & Helmchen, F. (2003) Journal of Neuroscience 23: 8558-8567.




Distal and terminal dendrites of rat layer 5 pyramidal neocortical neurons: initiation and propagation of action potentials in apical tuft branches
Larkum, M.E. & Zhu, J.J. (2002) Journal of Neuroscience 22: 6991-7005.


Synaptic information efficacy: Bridging the cleft between biophysics and function.
London, M., Shribman, A., Häusser, M., Larkum, M.E., Segev, I. (2002) Nature Neuroscience 5: 332-340.




Dendritic mechanisms underlying the coupling of the dendritic with the axonal action potential initiation zone of adult rat layer 5 pyramidal neurons
Larkum, M.E., Zhu, J.J., Sakmann, B. (2001) Journal of Physiology 533: 447-466.




A high Ih channel density in the distal apical dendrite of layer V neocortical pyramidal cells increases bidirectional attenuation of EPSPs
Berger, T.*, Larkum, M.E.*  and Lüscher, H.-R.  (2000)  Journal of Neurophysiology 85: 855-868.* Equal contribution




Calcium electrogenesis in distal apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal cells at a critical frequency of back-propagating action potentials.
Larkum, M.E., Kaiser, K.M.M., Sakmann, B. (1999b) PNAS. 96: 14600-14604.


A new mechanism for coupling inputs arriving at different cortical layers
Larkum, M.E., Zhu, J.J., Sakmann, B. (1999a) Nature. 398: 338-341.




Integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in dendrites of motoneurons of rat spinal cord slice cultures
Larkum, M.E., Launey, J., Dityatev, A., Lüscher, H.-R. (1998). Journal of Neurophysiology.  80, 924-935


Modeling action potential initiation and back-propagation in dendrites of cultured rat motoneurons
Lüscher, H.-R. & Larkum, M.E. (1998). Journal of Neurophysiology  80, 715-729 (1998).




Propagation of action potentials in the dendrites of neurons from rat spinal cord slice cultures
Larkum, M.E., Rioult, M.G., Lüscher, H.-R. (1996). Journal of Neurophysiology.  Vol. 75: 154-170.


Dynamics of a random neural network with synaptic depression
Senn, W., Wyler, K., Streit, J., Larkum, M.E., Lüscher, H.-R., Merz, F., Mey, H., Müller, L., Steinhauser, D., Vogt, K. and Wannier, T. (1996). Neural Networks. 9: 575-588.




Calcium concentration changes in the calyciform nerve terminal of the avian ciliary ganglion after tetanic stimulation
Larkum, M.E., Warren, D.A., Bennett, M.R. (1994). Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 46: 175-188.